Energy Poverty and its Impact on Environment: A case study of Pakistan

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Energy Poverty and its Impact on Environment: A case study of Pakistan

Author(s) : Amna Haleem, Muhammad Imran Khan ,Fatima Athar

Abstract:
This study examined the impact of reduction in energy poverty on environment. Energy poverty is defined in several ways like; percentage of household expenditure on energy uses or alternatively in terms of access to clean energy products and services such as electricity, natural gas and LPG etc. Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) data for 2013-14 is utilized to compute Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index. The index, based on data for different fuels for heating, lightening and cooking, is computed to assess incidence of energy poverty. The list of fuel includes firewood, coal, kerosene oil, Gas (Cylinder), Gas (Pipeline), electricity from regular distribution system of WAPDA and from Generators. Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI) is showing that 69.67 percent households are deprived of clean fuel for cooking and 47.11 percent are deprived of clean fuel for heating. However, for lighting only 9.04 percent households do not have access to clean source. Furthermore, study finds that CO2 emissions can be reduced significantly through improving access (access through subsidization, regulation and increasing supply) of low income group to the energy mix of high income group. If highest income groups’ energy mix is available to poor, for cooking and heating purposes, the emissions will decline to 755.869 metric ton (per month) from current of 2039.520 metric ton (Per month). Per household will also decline by 44.69 kgCo/kwh if highest income group energy mix is available to all households